That Old Black Magic: Louis Prima, Keely Smith, and the Golden Age of Las Vegas

That Old Black Magic: Louis Prima, Keely Smith, and the Golden Age of Las Vegas

by Tom Clavin


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In 1948, New Orleans veteran trumpeter and singer Louis Prima stumbled into a young girl named Keely Smith. She was barely a performer at all, almost half his age, destined for a relatively quiet life; their encounter was pure coincidence. But they went on to invent “The Wildest,” the most exciting and successful lounge act Las Vegas has ever seen, an act that became one of the hottest in the U.S. in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Their records were hugely popular, and they were courted by Frank Sinatra, Ed Sullivan, Robert Mitchum, and other well-known entertainers of the day. Their professional success helped bring about the rise of Las Vegas as a mecca of American entertainment. Their love story ended soon after they helped usher in John F. Kennedy’s presidency—singing “That Old Black Magic” for him at his inauguration—but their influence is still evident. And Keely still draws SRO audiences to her nightclub appearances.

Now, on the occasion of Louis Prima’s 100th birthday, comes the first book on this duo, illustrating not only one of show business’s greatest love stories but also the Vegas milieu in which they reached the pinnacle of their success.

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781556528217
Publisher: Chicago Review Press, Incorporated
Publication date: 11/01/2010
Pages: 224
Product dimensions: 7.94(w) x 11.80(h) x 0.83(d)

About the Author

Tom Clavin is the author/coauthor of ten books, including Roger Maris, The Last Stand of Fox Company, and Halsey’s Typhoon. His articles have appeared in Cosmopolitan, Family Circle, Men’s Journal, Parade, Reader’s Digest, and others. He was a contributing reporter for the New York Times for 15 years.

Read an Excerpt

That Old Black Magic

Louis Prima, Keely Smith, and the Golden Age of Las Vegas

By Tom Clavin

Chicago Review Press Incorporated

Copyright © 2010 Tom Clavin
All rights reserved.
ISBN: 978-1-56976-813-6



Jump, Jive, an' Wail

Yes, they were "The Wildest." It was an hour before dawn on a Friday in the fall of 1958, and Louis Prima and Keely Smith, backed by sideman sax player Sam Butera and the band, were blowing the roof off the Casbar Lounge of the Sahara Hotel, which rivaled the Sands as the most popular nightspot on the booming Las Vegas Strip.

The finger-snapping, toe-tapping ruckus had been going on for over five hours with only a few short breaks. The Witnesses were jamming their way through "The White Cliffs of Dover." Louis lay on the floor, on his back, kicking his feet in the air and blasting his trumpet. Sam crouched above him, blowing every ounce of breath he had through his saxophone. Back up on the tiny stage, Keely — filling out a white taffeta dress in all the right spots and not a strand of her pageboy-style black hair out of place — stood still, staring impassively out at the audience. She had seen it all before, and she'd see it again tomorrow night.

Yet for many members of the audience in the sweltering, smoky lounge, the act was unlike any other that could be found in Las Vegas. No one knew what antics Louis would get up to next, and his sidekick Sam was always there, trying to follow while at the same time leading that tight, tight band. This was the last of five shows that had begun at midnight. In every one, Keely, with those beautiful Cherokee-Irish cheekbones, alternated between belting out one of her signature ballads — "I Wish You Love" and "Come Rain or Come Shine" were real crowd-pleasers — and staring off into space. "I'll stand in front of the piano, lean up against it, fold my arms and stand there for half an hour if I feel like it," she told one of the Las Vegas dailies.

Louis would turn forty-eight in December, but he was like a big black bear in his prime, shouting and scatting and bursting sounds out of his trumpet while jumping around the small stage. All night he did it, all night, with Sam threatening to explode eardrums with his sax and the always-in-motion Witnesses seeming to make up their parts as the night went on.

Their interaction with the audience was nonstop, and the louder and the more ad-libbed the better. Because they were married, Louis and Keely got away with lewd gestures and double entendres that might have gotten other performers arrested (and this included on TV too). Time magazine the year before had referred to the act as "relentlessly vulgar," which in Vegas was considered high praise. Radio stations refused to play "Closer to the Bone" because of Louis singing "My slice of Virginia ham is the sweetest meat to eat," and the song was even raunchier live. It was just one of the reasons why the entire show was dubbed "The Wildest."

The stage at the Casbar Lounge was so small that the band's instruments sometimes touched the pitted white tile ceiling, which was barely visible through the foggy layer of cigarette smoke. On the aqua walls in the room hung African masks that appeared to stare at the stage with the same fascination as the audience. As the night wore on, half the audience had become lost in the cigarette smoke. There was only one spotlight and one microphone, but that was enough for a loud and unpredictable show.

Their music had a new sound because they had nothing to lose. Louis and Keely could play whatever they liked. Mixed in the same set could be Dixieland jazz, Benny Goodman, Louis Armstrong, Little Richard and other early rock 'n' roll beats, Charlie Parker, Frank Sinatra, and a gumbo of New Orleans free association. And the audience knew the favorites well, because Louis had made them his own over a long career: "Pennies from Heaven," "When You're Smiling," "Jump, Jive, an' Wail," and, of course, "Just a Gigolo." Though Louis rehearsed his group with a firm hand, once onstage they fed off each other. Louis encouraged spontaneity. Sam Butera explained, "I took what I liked and added my own thing to it."

Louis cavorted his way back to the stage and the song ended, the Witnesses stopping on a dime. The audience shouted and clapped, drowning out the incessant clinking of glasses and snapping of cigarette lighters. Louis laughed, soaking in the ovation, and Sam's grin was wider than the harmonica just a quick reach away in his vest pocket. Her eyes barely moving, Keely scratched an itch under her nose. Then she caught the glance from Louis confirming what was to come next, and she joined him at the mike.

First came Paul Ferrara tapping rapidly on the snare drum. He had created the intro and received the union wage of thirty-five dollars when they'd recorded the song. Next was a dizzy trill from Sam. Then Robert Carter on piano joined in. The crowd exclaimed when Louis sang the first line: "Old black magic has me in its spell."

This was the song they had been waiting for. Sure, the raucous rendition of "When the Saints Go Marching In" always got everyone up on their feet, but that song closed every show, and hearing it meant the night was over. No, they wanted the hit, the Louis and Keely version that was blaring out of every radio in the country.

"Old black magic that you weave so well," sang Keely, her smooth voice as sultry as Rosemary Clooney, Peggy Lee, or any singer on the Strip.

Now the whole band was into it — Lou Sino with his trombone, Bobby Roberts on guitar, and Tony Liuzza on bass joining in. Louis bounced up and down on his feet and even Keely had to smile, but she kept her hands clasped behind her.

Louis: "Those icy fingers up and down my spine."

Keely: "That same old witchcraft when your eyes meet mine."

They continued to trade the lines written by Harold Arlen and Johnny Mercer. It truly was a love song, written in 1942 when Mercer was involved with the twenty-something Judy Garland, who just three years earlier had put her indelible stamp on "Somewhere Over the Rainbow" in The Wizard of Oz.

"Same old tingle that I feel inside."

"And then that elevator starts its ride."

"Down and down I go."

"Round and round I go."

"Like a leaf caught in the tide."

The song had been a hit for Glenn Miller, reaching number one in 1943. It was a charmed song because it seemed to work for everyone who recorded it — Margaret Whiting, Frank Sinatra, Sammy Davis Jr., Billy Daniels, the Modernaires, and Judy herself. Marilyn Monroe had sung it in Bus Stop, a movie released two years earlier, in 1956. But Louis and Keely's version became the all-time classic one. Everyone who heard it knew that. And there was nothing like seeing them do it live in this little casino lounge that fit only 150 people.

Keely's voice rose above the band: "I should stay away but what can I do?"

Louis barked, "I hear your name and I'm a flame."

"Flame, burning desire."

"That only your kiss ..."

"Put out the fire."

Louis turned and danced away from the mike. Keely swayed rapturously, and the Witnesses turned it up a notch. Abruptly back at the mike, Louis bellowed, "For you're the lover that I've waited for."

"You're the mate that fate had me created for."

"And every time your lips meet mine."

"Baby, down and down I go, round and round I go."

"In a spin, loving the spin that I'm in."

"Under that old black magic called love."

"Ooh, in a spin, loving the spin I'm in."

"Under that old black magic called love."

"In a spin, loving the spin I'm in."

"Under the old black magic called love."

Between bleats of his sax Sam looked out at the crowd. He immediately recognized a half-dozen famous faces: Sinatra in one corner with Dean Martin and Joey Bishop. Debbie Reynolds with a group of people. Tony Curtis and Janet Leigh. For many Vegas performers and celebrities, the night wasn't over until Louis and Keely said so.

"I should stay away but what can I do?"

"I hear your name and I'm a flame."

"Flame, burning desire."

"That only your kiss ..."

"Put out the fire."

Danny Thomas had told some publication about the Witnesses, "Man for man, pound for pound, it is the greatest musical organization in the world." They sounded like it tonight. Sam might seem tireless, but they took their inspiration from Louis, the man they called the Chief. That came because his wife was part Indian, but mostly because he was the undisputed boss. You do what he says, and you remain in one of the best gigs in show business; you give him grief (especially over money), and you are looking for a job at another casino or in Reno instead of Vegas.

"For you're the lover I have waited for."

"You're the mate that fate had me created for."

"And every time your lips meet mine."

"Baby, down and down I go, round and round I go."

"In a spin, loving the spin that I'm in."

"Under that old black magic called love."

"Ooh, in a spin, loving the spin I'm in."

"Under that old black magic called love."

"In a spin, loving the spin I'm in."

"Under the old black magic called love."

Big finish now, with the band peaking and Louis and Keely singing together into the mike: "Under the old black magic called love!"

The audience jumped to its feet, cheering and applauding. Anyone in the room who didn't was either deaf or dead. Frank bowed to them, and with the hand not holding a cigarette he blew Keely a kiss. What's next, they all wondered. There was almost a groan of disappointment when they heard the opening notes of "When the Saints Go Marching In." The band began a conga line through the crowd, with Louis, of course, leading the way.

That was OK. Many of these folks would be back the next night. There was nothing in Las Vegas like "The Wildest," and in the fall of 1958 Louis and Keely and Sam were at the top of the entertainment game. When even Sinatra bows to you, you're untouchable.


"There are no second acts in American lives," wrote F. Scott Fitzgerald. He was wrong, surely, in the case of Louis Prima. All Prima needed was an angel like Keely Smith to grant him his second act, and together they made the most of it. Louis and Keely had both a love story and a showbiz success story. And then they blew it.

The story began a century ago. It is surprising that Louis became a jazz musician. Inevitable, too. The surprise is that in his family of men and women one boat ride away from Sicily, the routine occupations were laborers and street vendors. Given his physical gifts, Louis could have done well at either job. The inevitability stems from the musical surroundings of his native New Orleans and, more specifically, the boisterous encouragement of his mother, Angelina, the most profound influence on his life.

New Orleans has most often been associated with the French, but that was not the case when Louis Prima was born there in 1910. The French were the first major immigrant group, and after them came the Spanish. However, immediately before and after the Civil War, Italians dominated the city's immigrant population. According to U.S. Census Bureau figures, between 1850 and 1870 New Orleans was home to more Italians than any other major American city.

The influx continued into the next century, spurred on by the unification of Italy in 1870 and the economic and social problems that followed, which persuaded many people to leave. By the year of Prima's birth the "French" Quarter was 80 percent Italian, the majority of them Sicilian immigrants and their children. A portion of the French Quarter became known as Little Palermo. The Gulf Coast climate was similar to Sicily's, and those leaving Italy sought their fellow expatriates, who had established an expanding community.

"Our grandmothers and grandfathers, they came over here from Sicily and they landed in Argentina," explained Sam Butera in an interview about Prima. "After a few weeks, our grandfathers said this isn't the America we want to be in, so the next port of entry was New Orleans. They knew that there were many Italian Americans in New Orleans."

And there were also a lot of African Americans there. It is estimated that between the end of the Civil War and the dawn of the twentieth century over forty thousand freed slaves and their families walked away from the plantations of Louisiana and Mississippi and sought a new start in New Orleans.

The strongest bond among ethnic groups in the city was between the Italian and black populations. One reason for this was necessity. As the most recent immigrant group — and because of their numbers the most threatening to the white establishment — the Italians had to take whatever jobs they could get. That included working in the sugarcane fields and similar back-breaking occupations alongside blacks. And, like blacks, Italians were the target of blatant discrimination.

The most glaring example occurred in 1891. The New Orleans police chief, David Hennessey, who was often suspected of working both sides of the legal street, was ambushed on the night of October 15, 1890. He was shot several times, and it was reported in newspapers that with his dying gasps he said, "The dagos did it."

Mayor Joseph Shakespeare ordered a roundup, and 250 Italians were arrested. Of these, nineteen were ordered to stand trial, the youngest being fourteen years old. Newspaper accounts insinuated, perhaps for the first time in America, that there was a "mafia" consisting of Italian conspirators, and "Who killa da chief?" became a common taunt.

In the trial the following February, the defendants were represented by Lionel Adams and Thomas Semmes, the latter a descendant of Ralph Semmes, who had captained the CSS Alabama, the most famous rebel ship of the Civil War. Members of the jury, none of whom were Italian, found eleven of the accused guilty, although there was no evidence linking them to the murder.

The morning after the verdict, a mob of at least a thousand broke into the jail, and the eleven Italians were beaten and shot before being hanged. It was the largest mass lynching in U.S. history. Italy threatened to declare war, and to appease it and the immigrant population in New Orleans, President Benjamin Harrison ordered that twenty-five thousand dollars be given to the family members of the victims. (In 1999 the incident was turned into an HBO movie, Vendetta, directed by Nicholas Meyer and starring Christopher Walken.)

A less violent but more persistent form of discrimination was that Italians along with Jews and blacks could not be members of the "krewes," the organizations that produced the annual Mardi Gras festivities. Italians responded by forming their own organizations, such as the San Bartolomeo Society, founded in 1879 and still in existence today.

Louis Prima was not a philosopher or sociologist, so he never really reflected on the favor done him by necessity and prejudice that placed Italians and blacks in close quarters. At an early age he was influenced by black musicians, and he would always feel comfortable working and socializing with them. He almost lost the most important job of his career in Las Vegas in 1954 because of his anger over the treatment of a black performer. Prima didn't think he was being noble, just human. To him, there was nothing odd about eating, drinking, playing cards, and sharing a stage with African Americans.

Prima was surrounded by an emerging sound that was being called jazz, and Italian musicians were at the center of it. The first jazz recording in the United States was made in February 1917 by Dominic James "Nick" LaRocca and the Original Dixieland Jazz (originally "Jass") Band. The son of immigrants from Sicily, LaRocca had formed the five-piece band the year before. (The first jazz song by a black musician was recorded a month after LaRocca's recording, by Wilbur Sweatman.) The cornet player and his crew became a sort of Johnny Appleseed of jazz, doing shows in Chicago and New York, then going overseas to England and Scotland, performing such LaRocca compositions as "Tiger Rag" and "Sensation Rag."

Emerging black artists rapidly took over the jazz scene. With only a few exceptions, they were the ones touring the country as representatives of jazz performing and composing. Jelly Roll Morton came out of New Orleans and had his best years in New York and Chicago, though his genius wouldn't be fully appreciated until after his death in Los Angeles in 1941. Also gaining attention were Joe "King" Oliver, Buddy Bolden, and Kid Ory.

Then along came the artist who eclipsed them all.


Two men who are often cited as the greatest American musical artists of the twentieth century would have significant impacts on Louis Prima. With Frank Sinatra, it wouldn't happen until the 1950s. Prima was a child when he first felt the influence of Louis Armstrong, and it changed his life. Would he have become a musician without Armstrong? Probably, given his surroundings and desire. But he would not have become the Louis Prima who could so captivate and energize an audience.

Armstrong was born on August 4, 1901, in a shack on Jane Alley in New Orleans. His father abandoned his family, which left Armstrong to be raised primarily by his grandmother and, after the age of five, his mother, May Ann, who was only fifteen when he was born. He had a series of "stepfathers," some of whom were his mother's pimps.

Until the age of eleven, Armstrong's experience with music included singing on the street as part of a quartet of friends, blowing through a little tin horn, and staring through cracks in the walls of places such as Funky Butt Hall to watch musicians and dancers. At eleven, he worked for a Jewish family, and, after seeing a five-dollar cornet in a pawnshop window, he saved fifty cents a week until he could buy it.


Excerpted from That Old Black Magic by Tom Clavin. Copyright © 2010 Tom Clavin. Excerpted by permission of Chicago Review Press Incorporated.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
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