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Postharvest Biotechnology of Flowers and Ornamental Plants

Postharvest Biotechnology of Flowers and Ornamental Plants

Paperback(Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1990)

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The floricultural industry has been undergoing an unprecedented revolu­ tion in terms of the type of commodity produced and the production and marketing technology in both developed and developing countries. As a result of this revolution, as we know today, there is a flower for every purpose and for every person in the world, as is evident from the slogan of the Society for American Florists: "say it with flowers". In re­ cent years, the Latin American and European countries have become sizeable competitors for the North American fresh flower markets and the trend continues growing. Like any other crop production, floricultural production can be divided into three basic factors: (1) production costs (2) quality (3) transportation costs. All these must be optimum for this area or industry to be safe from competition. With increasing consumer awareness and the current recession, the pressure from the artificial floral products in­ dustry and also of neighbouring countries on the American fresh flower industry, and continued competition even amongst the growers, whole­ salers and retailers, quality in floricultural industry is becoming increas­ ingly important to all those concerned with handling these products. The visual quality aspects of the product are the sole determiner of consumer acceptability in this industry and, unlike fruits and vegetables, flowers cannot be marketed by just discarding the damaged portion.

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9783642738050
Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Publication date: 01/16/2012
Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1990
Pages: 192
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.02(d)

Table of Contents

1 Introduction.- 1.1 Production, Utilization and the International Trade.- 1.1.1 Production and Utilization.- 1.1.2 International Flower Transport Trade.- 1.1.3 Nature of the Floriculture Industry.- 1.2 Future Trends in the Flower Industry.- 1.3 Quality in Flowers and Ornamentals.- 1.3.1 Components of Quality.- 1.4 Postharvest Losses and Problems of Handling in Flowers and Ornamentals.- 1.4.1 Extent of Postharvest Loss.- 1.4.2 Handling Problems Related to Flowers and Ornamentals.- 1.4.3 Recent Developments in Loss Reduction Biotechnologies in Flowers and Ornamentals.- References.- 2 Senescence of Flowers and Ornamentals — Basic Principles and Considerations.- 2.1 Definition and Terminology.- 2.2 Structural, Biochemical and Metabolic Changes Associated with Senescence of Flowers and Ornamentals.- 2.2.1 Ultrastructural Changes.- 2.2.2 Biochemical Changes.- 2.2.3 Metabolic Changes.- 2.2.4 Changes in Pigments.- 2.3 Hormonal Regulation of Senescence of Flowers and Ornamentals.- 2.3.1 Effects of Ethylene.- 2.3.2 Involvement of Other Plant Hormones.- 2.4 Shedding of Flowers and Ornamentals (Foliage).- 2.5 Concluding Remarks.- References.- 3 Carnation.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.1.1 Postharvest Quality Requirements.- 3.1.2 Commercial Cultivars.- 3.1.3 Production.- 3.2 Physiology and Biochemistry.- 3.2.1 Growth and Development.- 3.2.2 Senescence of Cut Carnations.- 3.3 Postharvest Losses.- 3.3.1 Nature of Losses.- 3.3.2 Causes of Losses.- 3.4 Loss Reduction Biotechnology.- 3.4.1 Cultural Practices.- 3.4.2 Harvesting, Grading and Packaging.- 3.4.3 Low Temperature Storage.- 3.4.4 Controlled Atmosphere (CA) Storage.- 3.4.5 Modified Atmospheric (MA) Storage.- 3.4.6 Low Pressure Storage.- 3.4.7 Use of Growth Regulators, Floral Preservative and Bud Opening Solution.- 3.4.8 Control of Pests and Diseases.- References.- 4 Rose.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.1.1 Postharvest Quality Requirements.- 4.1.2 Commercial Cultivars.- 4.1.3 Production and Distribution.- 4.2 Physiology and Biochemistry.- 4.2.1 Growth and Development.- 4.2.2 Senescence of Rose Cut Flowers.- 4.3 Postharvest Losses.- 4.3.1 Extent of Losses.- 4.3.2 Nature and Causes of Losses.- 4.4 Loss Reduction Biotechnology.- 4.4.1 Cultural Practices.- 4.4.2 Harvesting and Packaging.- 4.4.3 Low Temperature Storage.- 4.4.4 Controlled Atmosphere (CA) Storage.- 4.4.5 Modified Atmosphere (MA) Storage.- 4.4.6 Subatmospheric (Hypobaric) Storage.- 4.4.7 Use of Floral Preservatives and Chemicals.- 4.4.8 Control of Pests and Diseases.- 4.5 Vase Life Evaluation in Roses.- References.- 5 Chrysanthemum.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.1.1 Postharvest Quality Requirements.- 5.1.2 Commercial Cultivars.- 5.1.3 Production.- 5.2 Physiology and Biochemistry.- 5.2.1 Growth and Development.- 5.2.2 Senescence of Cut Chrysanthemum.- 5.3 Postharvest Losses.- 5.3.1 Nature of Losses.- 5.3.2 Causes of Losses.- 5.4 Loss Reduction Biotechnology.- 5.4.1 Cultural Practices.- 5.4.2 Harvesting, Grading and Packaging.- 5.4.3 Low Temperature Storage.- 5.4.4 Controlled Atmospheric (CA) Storage.- 5.4.5 Modified Atmospheric (MA) Storage.- 5.4.6 Subatmospheric Pressure (Hypobaric) Storage.- 5.4.7 Floral Preservative and Bud Opening Solutions.- 5.4.8 Control of Pests and Diseases.- References.- 6 Tulip.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Physiology and Biochemistry.- 6.2.1 Growth and Development.- 6.2.2 Senescence of Cut Tulip.- 6.3 Postharvest Losses in Cut Tulips.- References.- 7 Orchid.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.1.1 Postharvest Quality Requirements.- 7.1.2 Species and Commercial Cultivars.- 7.1.3 Production.- 7.2 Physiology and Biochemistry.- 7.2.1 Growth and Development.- 7.2.2 Senescence of Cut Flowers of Orchids.- 7.3 Postharvest Losses in Orchids.- 7.3.1 Nature of Losses.- 7.4 Loss Reduction Biotechnology.- 7.4.1 Harvesting, Packaging and Transportation.- 7.4.2 Low Temperature Storage.- 7.4.3 Controlled Atmospheric (CA) Storage.- 7.4.4 Low-Pressure Storage.- 7.4.5 Use of Ethylene Scrubbers.- 7.4.6 Control of Pests and Diseases.- References.- 8 Gladiolus.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.1.1 Postharvest Quality Requirements.- 8.1.2 Cultivars of Commercial Importance.- 8.1.3 Production.- 8.2 Physiology and Biochemistry.- 8.2.1 Growth and Development.- 8.3 Postharvest Losses in Cut Gladiolus.- 8.3.1 Cultivars.- 8.4 Loss Reduction Biotechnology.- 8.4.1 Cultural Practices.- 8.4.2 Harvesting, Grading and Packaging.- 8.4.3 Low Temperature Storage.- 8.4.4 Controlled and Modified Atmospheric Storage.- 8.4.5 Sub-Atmospheric Pressure Storage.- 8.4.6 Use of Floral Preservative.- 8.4.7 Control of Pests and Diseases.- References.- 9 Other Cut Flowers.- 9.1 Gerbera.- 9.1.1 Introduction.- 9.1.2 Senescence of Gerbera Cut Flowers.- 9.1.3 Postharvest Losses in Cut Gerberas.- 9.1.4 Postharvest Loss Reduction Biotechnology.- 9.2 Anthurium.- 9.2.1 Introduction.- 9.2.2 Loss Reduction Biotechnology.- 9.3 Gypsophila.- 9.3.1 Introduction.- 9.4 Iris.- 9.4.1 Introduction.- 9.4.2 Postharvest Biotechnology.- 9.5 Narcissus.- 9.5.1 Introduction.- 9.6 Snapdragon.- 9.6.1 Introduction.- 9.6.2 Postharvest Losses in Snapdragon.- 9.6.3 Loss Reduction Biotechnology.- 9.7 Statice.- 9.8 Freesia.- 9.9 Delphinium.- 9.9.1 Introduction.- 9.10 Stocks.- 9.10.1 Introduction.- 9.11 Zantedechia.- 9.11.1 Introduction.- 9.12 Paeonia.- 9.13 Anemone.- 9.14 Aster.- 9.15 Rananculus.- 9.16 Sterlitzia.- 9.17 Cut Greens.- References.- 10 Potted Plants.- 10.1 Chrysanthemum.- 10.1.1 Introduction.- 10.1.2 Physiology and Biochemistry.- 10.1.3 Postproduction Losses in Potted Chrysanthemum.- 10.1.4 Loss Reduction Biotechnology.- 10.2 Poinsettia.- 10.2.1 Introduction.- 10.2.2 Physiology and Biochemistry.- 10.2.3 Postharvest Losses in Potted Poinsettias.- 10.2.4 Loss Reduction Biotechnology.- 10.3 African Violets.- 10.3.1 Introduction.- 10.3.2 Physiology and Biochemistry.- 10.3.3 Postharvest Losses in African Violets.- 10.3.4 Loss Reduction Biotechnology.- 10.4 Begonia.- 10.4.1 Introduction.- 10.4.2 Post-Production Losses in Begonia.- 10.4.3 Loss Reduction Biotechnology.- 10.5 Geranium.- 10.5.1 Introduction.- 10.5.2 Post-Greenhouse Losses in Geranium.- 10.5.3 Loss Reduction Biotechnology.- 10.6 Kalanchoe.- 10.6.1 Introduction.- 10.7 Easter Lily.- 10.8 Cyclamen.- 10.9 Gloxinia.- 10.10 Calceolaria.- 10.11 Streptocarpus.- 10.12 Cineraria (Senecio hybridus).- 10.13 Rhododendron.- 10.14 Hydrangea.- References.- 11 Foliage Plants.- 11.1 Introduction.- 11.1.1 Quality Requirements.- 11.2 Physiology and Biochemistry.- 11.2.1 Growth and Development.- 11.2.2 Senescence of Leaves.- 11.3 Post-Production Losses in Foliage Plants.- 11.4 Loss Reduction Biotechnology.- 11.4.1 Cultural Practices.- 11.4.2 Acclimatization.- 11.4.3 Grading, Packing, and Storage.- 11.4.4 Maintaining the Health of Foliage Plants in the Home.- 11.4.5 Control of Pests and Diseases.- 11.4.6 Use of Growth Regulators.- References.

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