by Dan Gookin

Paperback(Older Edition)

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Throw out those dense, mind-numbing, jargon-filled computer manuals and grab yourself a copy of PC's For Dummies, 6th EDITION, your all-in-one guide that is packed with all the tried-and-true advice and special tricks that you can expect from all-time best-selling author Dan Gookin. In his familiar, fun, and easy-to-follow fashion, Gookin guides you through the wonderful world of PCs with a minimum of technobabble and a maximum of hardware smarts and software savvy.

Find out what lurks inside a PC and sort your way through chips, cards, cables, and connections The Dummies Way™. You don't have to be a geek to get the most bang for your computing buck PC's For Dummies, 6th Edition, is the ideal reference for first-time PC users. From putting your PC together to finding quick answers and sage advice on installing new hardware and software, surfing the Internet and sending e-mail, or troubleshooting your PC problems, you can feel confident-and get your work done-in no time at all.

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780764502699
Publisher: Wiley, John & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 09/01/1997
Series: For Dummies Books
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 410
Product dimensions: 7.40(w) x 9.21(h) x 1.09(d)

About the Author

Dan Gookin escribió el libro inaugural de la serie For Dummies en 1991. Sus numerosos libros récord en ventas incluyen todas las ediciones de PCs Para Dummies, Word Para Dummies y Laptops For Dummies.

Read an Excerpt

Chapter 4
The Big Red Switch

In This Chapter

  • How to turn the computer on
  • What happens after you flip the Big Red Switch
  • How to log in to the network
  • How to get the Windows tip-of-the-day
  • How to turn the computer off
  • Whether or not to leave your PC on all the time
  • How to reset or reboot your computer

Should turning something on or off be complicated? Of course not. But then again, a computer isn't known for being the most logical of devices. Heck, you'd think the computer would have several on and off switches just to make it tough on you. But no.

The truth is that there's just one Big Red Switch that makes the PC stop or go. Of course, the switch is often neither red nor big, but that's not a big deal. What is a big deal is when and how to throw the switch and all the stuff that happens in between. That's what'll make you pull your hair out in clumps or chant a mantra while clutching your New Age Power Crystal in one hand and flipping the power switch with the other.

Well, fret no more. This chapter covers the basics of turning a computer on, covers what happens just after that, and then doesn't neglect the important stuff about turning the computer off. A lot happens as Mr. PC begins his sunshiny day. Oh -- and this is definitely worth $6 of the cover price -- this chapter tells you the lowdown on whether or not you can let your computer run all day and all night without ever turning it off. (Yes, it can be done.)

Turning the Computer On

Turning a computer on is as easy as reaching for that big red switch and flipping it to the ON position. Some computers may have their big red switch in front, and some have the switch on the side. Still other computers may even paint their big red switch brown or fawn-white, or it may be one of those push-button jobbies.

  • In keeping with the international flavor of computing, computer companies have done away with the illogical, Western-culture-dominated habit of putting the words ON and OFF on their on/off switches. To be more politically correct, the PC's switch uses a bar for ON and a circle for OFF (go back and see Figure 1-3 to refresh your own memory banks).

  • If you can't see the screen, wait awhile. If nothing appears, turn the monitor on.

  • If the computer won't turn on, check to see whether it's plugged in. If it still doesn't come on, refer to Chapter 24, "When to Scream for Help."

  • Two nerdy terms for turning on a computer: Power-on and power-up.

  • If the computer does something unexpected or if you notice that it's being especially unfriendly, first panic. Then turn to Part VI of this book to figure out what went wrong.

  • Make sure that a disk isn't in drive A when you start the computer. If a disk is in floppy disk drive A, the computer won't start from the hard drive like it's supposed to. Keep drive A empty. (Some people keep a disk in drive A because it looks cool; don't be a fool. Just say no to disks in drive A when you boot the computer.)

  • See Chapter 7 for more information about drive A.

Technical stuff to ignore

Your computer has many plug-inable items attached to it. Each one of them has its own on/off switch. There is no specific order to follow when turning any equipment on or off, though an old adage was "Turn the computer box on last." Or was it first? I don't remember. But one way to save the hassle is to buy a power strip or one of the fancier computer power-control-center devices. You plug everything into it and then turn on the whole shebang with one switch.

"The manual tells me to boot my computer: Where do I kick it?"

Oh, don't be silly. Booting a computer has nothing to do with kicking it. Instead, booting simply refers to turning on a computer. To boot a computer means to turn it on. Rebooting a computer is the same as pressing the Reset button. It's all weird nerd talk.

Look! Up on the screen!

Heavenly choirs rejoice! Windows 95 is here!

Of course, you don't see Windows 95 right away. First comes some text. Then a few fragments and whatnot, a copyright notice, and maybe you'll catch the following -- Windows 95's only text screen message, bidding farewell to the way PCs used to work:

Starting Windows 95 . . .

After that, the PC goes graphical. You may see more bits of text fly by, like the closing credits of a movie (but don't bother looking for the Dolly Grip or Best Boy).

  • Starting the computer with the Big Red Switch is the mechanical part. What you're starting is the computer hardware, which is really nothing but a lot of heavy, cold, and calculating electronic junk that the cat likes to sleep on. Eventually, your computer's software actually brings the computer to life, allowing it to do something. With Windows 95, you see the "Windows in the clouds" scene, which is only meant to entertain you while Windows seemingly takes several weeks to get out of bed.

"My computer says 'Non-system disk.' What gives?"

This happens a lot, even to Bill Gates!

Non-system disk or disk error
Replace and strike any key when ready

Remove the floppy disk from drive A and press the Enter key. Your computer will then start normally.

The reason you see the message is that you or someone else has left a floppy disk in your PC's A drive. The computer has tried to start itself using software on that disk and -- whaddya know? -- no software is on that disk! The software (your PC's operating system) is really on your PC's hard drive, which can't be loaded until you remove that dern floppy disk from drive A and whack the Enter key.

And just who the heck are you?

Windows seems pretty easy to get into; it's doing all the work! But if your PC is shackled to a network, you'll be forced to show some ID before getting into the good stuff. Apparently, you can't buy liquor or drive a computer without proper identification.

The Enter Network Password dialog box, as shown in Figure 4-1, is Windows' way of gently asking, "Just who the heck are you?" You type in your special user name, press the Tab key, and then type your password. Click the OK button, and Windows lets you in.

If you type the wrong password, the security alarms sound, a metal gate drops over you and the PC, the hounds are released, and Windows dutifully erases the hard drive lest security be breached.

Just kidding! If you goof up, you get a second shot. If you goof up again, Windows lets you in anyway.

  • Windows probably already knows your user name and displays it proudly for you, as in Figure 4-1. Your job is merely to enter the proper password.

  • Press the Tab key to move between the User Name and Password text boxes.

  • Telling the network who you are is technically called logging in. It has nothing to do with timber.

  • Chapter 10 discusses computer networking if you want to go nuts about it.

  • If this whole password/login stuff annoys you, just press the Esc key on the keyboard to bypass the feeble security.

  • If they guarded the Crown Jewels as feebly as Windows guards its network, we'd all be wearing funny expensive hats.

Here's your tip of the day: Click the Close button and get to work

Microsoft must have felt they didn't make Windows easy enough. Every time you start, you'll see the cheesy Welcome to Windows dialog box. Ugh! Time for another valuable and heretofore unknown tip.

Click the Close button to rid the screen of that annoying dialog box.

  • If you don't know how to work a computer mouse or figure that point-and-click is what you do with a gun, refer to Chapter 14 (the latter half).

  • If you really never want to see the Welcome to Windows dialog box ever again, click the mouse in the box by Show this Welcome Screen next time you start Windows (see Figure 4-2). This action removes the little check mark from the box, and you'll never be bothered by it again.

  • Don't bother clicking on any button in the Welcome to Windows dialog box other than Close. If you do, you're on your own. (And you've been warned!)

Some "Did you know . . ." things you won't find in the Welcome dialog box

Did you know . . . Elvis used to take a .22 and shoot flashbulbs floating in his pool while he ate watermelon hearts.

Did you know . . . $10,000 of Microsoft stock purchased in 1986 would be worth over a quarter of a million dollars today?

Did you know . . . a chigger bite can itch like the devil.

Did you know . . . sausage was invented by the ancient Babylonians.

Did you know . . . the cheapest palmtop computer is a pad and pencil.

Did you know . . . steamed skim milk with two shots of espresso in a 16-ounce cup is a "double- tall-skinny latté."

Did you know . . . St. Nicholas is the patron saint of pawnbrokers.

Did you know . . . in 558 Chlotar, the son of Clovis, reunited the kingdom of France.

Did you know . . . West Quoddy Head, Maine, is the farthest eastern point in the continental United States.

Did you know . . . a whop bop a loo bop a bop bam boom.

Did you know . . . a porterhouse is a T-bone steak with a larger tenderloin side.

Did you know . . . Mad Magazine's Alfred E. Neuman was originally named Melvin Kosnowski.

Did you know . . . the tomato was legally declared a vegetable by the U.S. Supreme Court. (It's actually a fruit.)

It's about time this operating system showed up

After a time, and then times and half a time, Windows 95 presents itself on the screen in all its graphical goodness and glory (Figure 4-3). Windows is finally ready for you to use. Time to get to work.

  • Chapters 5 and 6 offer more information on Windows and getting to work.

  • Windows really does take a while to show up on the screen, so don't be discouraged; rumor has it Samuel Beckett was working on Waiting for Windot before he died.1

1This is a literary reference. Beckett wrote Waiting for Godot (Gah-do), who never shows up.

Getting Your Work Done

Between turning your computer on and off, you should do something. Get work done.

Alas, that's the subject of the next two chapters. This is just the starting and stopping your PC chapter.

Turning the Computer Off

Sure, turning the computer off is easy: just flip the big red switch. The power goes DINK, the fan softly warbles away, and the hard drive spins to a low hum and then stops. Unfortunately, that's just not polite enough for your computer. It's rude. Windows insists that you shut down properly, or it gets really, really sore.

Before you can feel the satisfaction of flipping that big red switch, heed these steps to properly furl Windows' sails:

  1. Pop up the Start menu.

    If you can see the Start button on the taskbar (look in the bottom-left corner of Figure 4-3), click on that button using your mouse.

    The best and most reliable way to make the Start menu appear is to press the Ctrl+Esc key combination. This works every time, whether you can see the Start button or not.

  2. Choose the Shut Down menu item.

    Click on it with the mouse or press the U key, since you can't yodel without the U sound.

    The Shut Down Windows dialog box appears (see Figure 4-4), filled with even more options for shutting down your PC.

  3. Click the Yes button.

    Ignore the options! The proper one you want, Shut down the computer, is already selected for you.

  4. Windows is outta here!


    • If you haven't saved any information in any programs, you'll be told about it. Go ahead and save everything.

    • If you've been running some older DOS programs, the whole operation stops. You must quit your DOS programs before you shut down Windows. (It's a sibling-rivalry thing.) Refer to your DOS program's manual or a proper ...For Dummies book near you.

    Eventually, after more disk commotion than seems necessary, you see a screen that tells you, and I quote, "It's now safe to turn off your computer." Look ma, no sparks!

  5. Flip the big red switch off.

    Click. You're done.

  • Yes, you shut down by first pressing the Start button. Such logic.

  • Keyboard shortcut to shutting down Windows 95: Ctrl+Esc, U, Enter. Ah, such lovely little keystrokes to quell the beast. But remember, Windows merely sleeps. It comes back to life again when you restart the computer.

  • Never turn off the computer when you're in the middle of something. Always quit your programs, and then shut down Windows properly. The only time you can safely turn off your PC is when the screen tells you that it's safe to do so. An exception to this is when your computer has gone totally AWOL. When that happens, refer to Part VI of this book.

  • If you are used to DOS (where you could shut down the computer anytime), be wary of seeing that friendly C:\> on the screen and thinking "Golly, it's OK to shut down the computer now." Not so with Windows 95! You must first quit DOS, which you do by typing the EXIT command:

    C> EXIT

    This makes your DOS prompt vanish, and, lo, you're back in Windows.

  • If Windows detects any unsaved programs as it quits, it will ask you to save them. For DOS programs, Windows will beg you to save them and actually refuse to quit: Go ahead and save your DOS stuff; then quit your DOS programs; then repeat the steps in this section before you flip the big red switch.

  • It's a good idea to wait at least 30 to 40 seconds before turning the computer on again. This gives the computer's hard drives time to slow down and stop. (Basically, it's just a bad idea to flip the PC's power switch rapidly from on to off to on again.)

  • If possible, try not to turn the computer off more than three times a day. My advice is to leave the machine on all day and, if you really want to turn it off, turn it off only at night. However, there is a school of thought that recommends leaving the computer on all the time. If that's your cup of java, refer to the next section.

"I want to leave my computer on all the time"

The great debate rages: should you leave your computer on all the time? Well, anyone who knows anything will tell you "Yes." Leave your computer on all the time, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 14 days a week on the planet Mars. The only time you should really turn a system off is when it will be unused for longer than a weekend.

Computers like being on all the time. You leave your refrigerator on all night or when you're away on trips, so why not the PC? It won't raise your electrical bill much, either.

The only thing you should be careful about is turning the monitor off when you're away from the computer. Switching the monitor off avoids the perils of phosphor burn-in, or what happens when a computer is left on too long and retains an image of Lotus 1-2-3 (or whatever you use a lot) on the screen -- even when the system is off. Turning off the monitor while you're away solves this problem.

  • Screen-dimming programs (screen savers) can blank out your monitor after the PC has been idle for a given amount of time. Windows has one located in the Control Panel. From the Start menu, choose Settings-->Control Panel and then open the Display icon by double-clicking on it with the mouse. Click on the Screen Saver tab and do whatever is necessary there, which I don't have time to explain all here.

  • If you do leave your computer on all the time, don't put it under a dust cover. The dust cover will give the computer its very own greenhouse effect and bring the temperatures inside the system way past the sweltering point and annoy Al Gore.

Resetting Your PC

Resetting your computer is a way to turn it off and on again without having to actually do that (and it's healthier for the PC than kicking the power cord out of the wall, despite the satisfying feeling that gives you). When you reset, you're restarting the computer while it's on.

You can reset in two ways: If your computer has a reset switch, you can push it. Ka-chinka! The computer stops whatever it's doing (or not doing) and starts all over again.

The reason for leaving your computer on, if you care to know

There are lots of interesting reasons why you should leave a computer on all the time. One is that the initial process of turning a computer on is a tremendous jolt to the system. It's often said that you subtract one day from the computer's life each time you switch the system off and then on. But who knows?

The truth is, leaving the computer on all the time keeps the temperature inside the box even. When you turn the system off, the electrical components cool. Turn the PC on again, and the components heat right back up. (The system's fan will keep them from getting too hot.) It's that temperature change from turning the system off and on that causes the damage. After a time, the solder joints become brittle, and they crack. That's when the real problems occur. By leaving your PC on all the time -- or just by minimizing the times you turn it off and on -- you can prolong its life.

An opposing school of thought claims that, although the preceding is true, leaving the computer on all the time wears down the bearings in your hard drive and causes the cooling fan to poop out prematurely. So be nice to your hard drive's packed bearings and turn the PC off once a day. Ack! You just can't win. (I leave all my computers on all the time, if you care to know.)

The second way to reset is to press the Ctrl, Alt, and Delete keys at the same time. You need to do this twice in a row in Windows, since Windows doesn't like you to press Ctrl+Alt+Delete, reasons for which I'll get into in the next section.

  • Ctrl+Alt+Delete is known as the three-finger salute, or control-alt-delete.

  • A reset is often called a warm boot. This is like a cold boot that has been sitting in front of the furnace all night.

  • As with turning a computer off, you shouldn't reset while the disk drive light is on or while you are in an application (except when the program has flown south). Above all, do not reset to quit an application. Always quit your programs properly and wait until Windows tells you it's safe before you turn off the computer.

  • Remember to remove any floppy disks from drive A before resetting. If you leave a disk in, the computer will try to start itself from that disk.

The proper way to reset in Windows 95

Windows 95 just won't let you press Ctrl+Alt+Delete to reset. The reason is probably because it's a bad idea to reset in the middle of something -- and Windows is always in the middle of something. So instead of being a reset command, Windows uses Ctrl+Alt+Delete to kill off programs that run amok.

If you press Ctrl+Alt+Delete in Windows 95, you'll see a Close Program dialog box, like the one shown in Figure 4-5. It's best not to mess with this dialog box, so click on the Cancel button or press the Esc key.

  • Don't press Ctrl+Alt+Delete in Windows unless you want to kill off a program. And if you want to kill off a program, see Chapter 25, the section "Killing Off a Program Run Amok."

  • If you really want to reset in Windows 95, you need to use the Shut Down command, as described in the section "Turning the Computer Off," earlier in this chapter. In the Shut Down dialog box, step 2, choose the second option, Restart the computer.

  • In the old version of Windows, Ctrl+Alt+Delete also killed off a program, but only the program you were currently using. This process was confusing for everyone, which is a good reason not to use Ctrl+Alt+Delete in the older version of Windows.

When to reset

Now the question arises: When should you reset? Obviously, anytime you're panicked. Personally, I only reset if the keyboard is totally locked up, and the program appears to have gone to the mall for some Mrs. Field's cookies and a soda. (Sometimes Ctrl+Alt+Delete doesn't work in these situations, so if you don't have a big reset button, you have to turn the computer off, wait, and then turn it on again.)

The only other time you really need to reset is just to start over. For example, I was experimenting with a program that made my keyboard click every time I pressed a key. There was no obvious way to turn off this annoying pestilence, so I reset.

Table of Contents

Introduccion     1
Que Hay de Nuevo en Esta Edicion?     1
Donde Empezar     2
Convenciones Utilizadas en Este Libro     3
Lo Que No Necesita Leer     4
Suposiciones Tontas     4
Iconos Usados en Este Libro     5
Contactar al Autor     5
Hacia Donde Ir Desde Aqui     6
Su Computadora No Va a Explotar     7
Una Introduccion Indolora a las Computadoras     9
Conceptos Sencillos de Computacion     10
Hardware y Software     13
La PC (Como en "PCs Para Dummies")     16
"Ah, Sobre Ese Tema de las Explosiones"     17
El Punto de Vista Nerd     19
Sabores de PC     19
Su Hardware Basico     20
Visita Guiada por la Consola     22
Instalacion de la PC     33
Desembalar las Cajas     33
Instale Primero la Consola     34
Manual de Instrucciones para Enchufar Cosas en la Consola     35
La Conexion Final: Energia     41
El Boton Mas Poderoso (Encendido)     47
Encender Su PC     48
Aqui Esta Windows!     50
Apagar la Computadora (Shutdown)     53
Boton de Poder, Cual Es Tu Funcion?     58
Deberia Dejar la Computadora Encendida Todo el Tiempo?     62
Normas de Windows     65
La Cara Sonriente de Windows     66
El Panel de Control     70
Control de Redes     71
Lugares para Sus Cosas     73
Ayuda de Windows     74
Las Tripas de la Computadora     75
Misterios de la Consola     77
Una Mirada al Interior de la Consola     77
La Madre de Todas las Placas     81
El Microprocesador No Es el Cerebro de la Computadora     81
Ranuras de Expansion     85
El Latido de la PC: Tic Tac     87
Sobre la Bateria de la PC     90
El Chipset o Circuito Integrado Auxiliar     90
La Fuente de Energia de la PC     91
Caja de Conectores Sorpresa     93
Es un Puerto, un Enchufe o Tan Solo un Orificio?     93
Alabado Sea el Puerto USB     94
El Puerto con Muchos Nombres, IEEE     98
Puertos Tradicionales     99
Almacenamiento Temporario (Memoria)     101
Por Que la Memoria?     101
Deliciosos Chips de Memoria de Chocolate     103
Un Byte por Aqui, un Byte por Alla, Bytes por Todas Partes     104
Algunas Preguntas y Respuestas Sobre la Memoria     106
Agregar Mas Memoria a Su PC     110
Tributo a Gilbert y Sullivan     112
Almacenamiento Permanente (Discos y Medios)     113
Almacenamiento Hasta el Fin     114
La unidad de Disco Duro     118
La Unidad de DVD     119
La Unidad de Discos Flexibles (Floppy Drive)     121
Tarjetas de Memoria     122
Almacenamiento Externo     125
ABC del Almacenamiento Permanente     126
Gloriosa Virtud Grafica     129
Las Cosas por Su Nombre     130
El Sistema de Graficos de la PC     130
Enamorese de Su Monitor     134
Windows y Su Monitor     136
Compinches de Entrada: Teclado y Mouse     145
Aprietele los Botones al Teclado     145
Controlar el Teclado en Windows     153
Actitud Apropiada para Digitar     154
Usted y el Mouse de Su PC Van de la Mano     155
Operaciones Basicas del Mouse     158
Jugar con el Mouse en Windows     159
Lo Que Importa Es la Impresora     163
Observar la Impresora      164
Configurar la Impresora     171
Windows y Su Impresora     171
Funcionamiento Basico de la Impresora     174
Suena Bien     179
Audio Audaz     179
Control de Audio en Windows     183
Windows Hace Ruido     186
Modems Poderosos     191
Que Hace un Modem?     191
Tipos de Modem     192
Instalar un Modem de Conexion Telefonica     196
Usar el Modem de Conexion Telefonica     198
Administracion Positiva de la Energia de Su PC     201
Que Es la Administracion de Energia?     201
Administracion de Energia en Windows     202
La Vida Es Digital     207
Hagase la Imagen     209
Trasladar Imagenes a la PC     209
Trabajar con Archivos Graficos     215
PC TV     223
Como Convertir una PC en una TV     223
Estan Dando Algo en la Tele!     225
Imagenes en Movimiento     233
El Oido Digital     237
Su PC Ahora es Su Estereo     237
La PC Puede Hablar y Escuchar     244
Redes e Internet     247
R de Redes     249
El Panorama General de la Red     249
Hardware de Redes     251
El Lado Software de la Red     254
Estuve Trabajando en la Red     261
Windows Forma la Red     262
La Red: Compartir y No Compartir     265
Dan, el Vaquero y Su Rodeo de Internet     271
Que Es Internet?     272
Como Acceder a Internet     272
Es una Red de Alcance Global Que Nosotros Mismos Tejemos     275
Llego el Correo!     278
Respuestas del Cuestionario     280
Mover Archivos con Total Libertad     281
Capturar Cosas de una Pagina Web     281
Software Proveniente de Internet     283
Tiene un Documento Adjunto en Su Correo!     286
Seguridad en Internet y Su PC     289
Villanos y Superheroes     289
Herramientas de Internet Explorer     291
El Centro de Seguridad de Windows     294
El Lado Soft de la Computacion     301
Archivos: La Clave para Entender el Software     303
Sabe Lo Que Es un Archivo?     303
Peguele un Nombre a Ese Archivo     307
Tipos de Archivos e Iconos     309
Crear Archivos     313
Organizar Su Compur-queria     317
La Historia de las Carpetas     317
Carpetas Famosas a Traves de la Historia     318
El Programa Explorador de Windows     323
Deje Que Haya Carpetas     324
El Cuadro de Dialogo Open     325
Control de Archivos     327
Trabajar con Grupos de Archivos     327
Archivos Aqui, Alla y Mas Alla     331
Encontrar Archivos Caprichosos     337
Software, Programas, Aplicaciones     339
Instalacion de Software     340
Ejecutar un Programa     342
Desinstalar Software     345
Actualizar y Mejorar el Software     347
Hacer Sus Propios Discos     349
Su Fabrica de Discos Personal     349
Su Propio Disco de Datos     352
Desechar un Disco     357
La Parte de los Diez     359
Los Diez Errores Comunes de un Principiante     361
No Cerrar Windows de Forma Correcta     361
Comprar Demasiado Software     362
Comprar Hardware Incompatible     362
No Comprar Suficientes Suministros     362
No Guardar Su Trabajo     363
No Hacer Copias de Seguridad de los Archivos      363
Abrir o Borrar Cosas Desconocidas     364
Tratar de Salvar al Mundo     364
Responder al Spam     365
Abrir un Programa Adjunto a un Correo Electronico     365
Diez Cosas Que Vale la Pena Comprar para Su PC     367
Almohadilla para Mouse y Descansa Munecas     367
Pantalla Antirreflejo     368
Protector para el Teclado     368
Mas Memoria     369
Un Disco Duro Mas Grande y Mas Rapido     369
Teclado Ergonomico     369
Una UPS     370
Headset     370
Escaner o Camara Digital     370
Reproductor de Musica Digital Portatil     371
Diez Consejos de un Guru de la PC     373
Recuerde Que Usted Controla a la Computadora     373
Tenga en Cuenta Que a los Fanaticos de la Computacion les Encanta Ayudar a los Principiantes     374
Use Software Antivirus     374
Entienda Que Actualizar el Software No Es una Necesidad Absoluta     375
No Reinstale Windows     375
Ajuste Perfectamente Su Monitor     376
Desconecte Su PC Cuando Actualice el Hardware     376
Suscribase a una Revista de Computacion     377
Evite el Despliegue Publicitario     377
No Lo Tome Tan en Serio     378
Indice     379

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