One Hundred Years of Social Work: A History of the Profession in English Canada, 1900-2000

One Hundred Years of Social Work: A History of the Profession in English Canada, 1900-2000

by Therese Jennissen, Colleen Lundy

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Overview

One Hundred Years of Social Work is the first comprehensive history of social work as a profession in English Canada. Organized chronologically, it provides a critical and compelling look at the internal struggles and debates in the social work profession over the course of a century and investigates the responses of social workers to several important events. A central theme in the book is the long-standing struggle of the professional association (the Canadian Association of Social Workers) and individual social workers to reconcile advancement of professional status with the promotion social action.

The book chronicles the early history of the secularization and professionalization of social work and examines social workers roles during both world wars, the Depression, and in the era of postwar reconstruction. It includes sections on civil defence, the Cold War, unionization, social work education, regulation of the profession, and other key developments up to the end of the twentieth century.

Drawing on extensive archival research as well as personal interviews and secondary literature, the authors provide strong academic evidence of a profession that has endured many important changes and continues to advocate for a just society and a responsive social welfare state.

One Hundred Years of Social Work will be of interest to social workers, social work students and educators, social historians, professional associations and anyone interested in understanding the complex nature of people and institutions.



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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781554581863
Publisher: Wilfrid Laurier University Press
Publication date: 02/17/2011
Pages: 378
Product dimensions: 5.90(w) x 8.90(h) x 1.00(d)

About the Author

Therese Jennissen teaches in the area of social policy and social welfare/social work history at Carleton University. She has published work on the gender dimensions of occupational health and safety in the workplace, workers compensation in Canada, and women and social policy. With Colleen Lundy, she has published on the impact of economic transformations on women in Cuba and Russia.


Colleen Lundy is a social work professor at Carleton University. Her book Social Work and Social Justice: A Structural Approach to Practice makes an important contribution to the understanding of social work from a social justice/human rights perspective. She is the editor of Canadian Social Work and the Canadian North America representative on the International Federation of Social Workers Human Rights Commission.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii

Acknowledgements xvii

Abbreviations of Organizations and Terms xix

Chapter 1 Responding to Industrial Capitalism and Setting the Stage for Professional Social Work, 1880-1924 1

Child Welfare 2

Poverty 3

The Role of Religion 4

Planting the Seeds of Social Work 6

The Settlement Movement 7

Charity Organization Societies (COS) 8

Social Work in World War I 12

Postwar Social Unrest and Labour Conflict 14

Conclusion 16

Notes 17

2 Pursuing Professional Status, 1924-29 21

The American Influence 22

The Formative Years in Canadian Social Work Education 24

Formation of a Canadian Social Work Association 27

The Impact of Pursuing Professional Status 33

Conclusion 36

Notes 37

3 Face to Face with Poverty: Social Work in the Depression, 1930-9 39

Social Workers Respond to Unemployment and Poverty 39

The Relief Crisis 46

Social Workers Come under Attack 47

Housing Conditions 48

Stretcher Bearers or Political Activists 49

Left-Leaning Social Workers 53

Social Casework Challenged 55

Developments in the CASW 59

Conclusion 61

Notes 61

4 Social Work in the War Years, 1939-45: Expansion and Consolidation 65

Contributing to the War Effort 66

The Continuation of Peacetime Social Work 69

Shortage of Qualified Social Workers 71

Growth and Consolidation in the CASW 72

Conclusion 74

Notes 75

5 Postwar Reconstruction and Civil Defence, 1940-60 79

Social Work and Postwar Reconstruction 80

The Royal Commission on Dominion-Provincial Relations (Rowell-Sirois), 1937-40 81

Unemployment Insurance Act, 1940 84

Report on Social Security for Canada (Marsh Report), 1943 85

Advisory Committee on Health Insurance (the Heagerty Committee), 1942-43 89

The Committee on Housing and Community Planning (the Curtis Committee), 1944 91

The Family Allowances Act, 1944 93

The Dominion-Provincial Conference on Reconstruction, 1945 95

Keeping an Eye on Child Welfare 98

Social Work and Civil Defence in Times of Peace 99

Conclusion 103

Notes 104

6 Social Work in the Cold War Era, 1940-60: Radicalism and Repression 111

The Daycare Movement 113

The Peace Movement 115

The Canadian Peace Congress 115

Social Workers for Peace 118

The Case of Mary Jennison: A Victim of the Anti-Communist Witch Hunts 120

The RCMP "Red List" 125

Conclusion 128

Notes 129

7 A Conservative Era in Social Work: The 1950s 133

Formalizing a Code of Ethics 133

Welfare Planning as Social Action 137

Abolition of the Death Penalty 142

The Doukhobor Situation 143

Revisiting the Social Action Mandate, 1956-58 144

Conclusion 147

Notes 148

8 The Struggle for Workplace Improvements and Standards: The Role of Unions and Professional Associations 151

Social Work and Unions: An Uneasy Alliance 152

Social Workers, Staff Associations, and Unions 154

Vulnerability of Social Workers: A Case Example 159

Social Workers in High Demand and Short Supply 160

Inadequate Training 163

Salaries and Conditions of Work 166

Social Workers Prepare to Strike 171

Conclusion 173

Notes 174

9 Provincial Autonomy and Reorganization in the CASW, 1950-65 181

The "Manpower" Crisis in Social Work 182

Restructuring of Role and Function 184

Provincial Autonomy 186

The Move to Provincial Associations: British Columbia 188

Developments in Quebec 190

New Directions for the CASW 193

Conclusion 198

Notes 198

10 Advancing Social Work Education, 1950-70 203

US Influence on Social Work Education 203

Organizing Social Work Education in Canada 205

The National Committee of Canadian Schools of Social Work (NCCSSW) 206

Canadian Committee on Social Work Education (CCSWE) 208

Canadian Council on Education and Personnel for the Social Services (CCEPSS) 209

Social Worker Shortage and Social Welfare Workers 212

Meeting the Challenges in Social Work Education 216

The Unwelcoming University 220

Conclusion 223

Notes 223

11 Legal Regulation of Social Work: The Last Stage in Professionalization 229

The Process of Professionalization 230

Legal Regulation: A Troubled Relationship with the State 232

A Patchwork of Regulatory Legislation 235

Convincing Government and Social Work 236

The Impact of Professionalization 240

Conclusion 242

Notes 243

12 Staying the Course: Choosing Professional Status over Progressive Politics 246

Selective Responses to Government Initiatives 246

Initiatives by Provincial Associations 249

The CASW Critiques Its Own Responses to Government 250

Silence on the Status of Women 251

Housing and Urban Renewal 254

The Absence of the CASW in Social Workers' Political Struggles 256

Going It Alone: Bridget Moran's Battle with British Columbia's Social Credit Government 256

Accountability and Ethics in Social Work Practice: The Warrendale Affair 258

Exercising the Left Wing: Social Workers Promoting Social Change 260

Conclusion 261

Notes 262

13 Social Work in a Declining Welfare State, 1974-2000 267

Cutbacks to the Welfare State and Changes in the Profession, 1974-89 268

Malaise in the Profession 269

Social Work Practitioners Shift to the Left 270

Persecution of a Left-Leaning Social Work Professor 272

A Wholesale Attack on the Welfare State, 1989-2000 278

Responses from the Social Work Community 280

Social Work Demonstrates Its Relevance 281

Conclusion 283

Notes 283

14 One Hundred Years of Social Work: Looking Back and Moving Forward into the Twenty-First Century 287

A Time of Transformation 287

Social Work Entering the Twenty-First Century: An Uncertain Time 289

External Challenges 289

Challenges Internal to the Profession 291

The Ongoing Struggle to Address Our Inherent Contradictions 291

Losing Ground in the Workplace and in Society 292

Fragmentation of Social Work Bodies 293

Social Work Theory and the Question of Theoretical Robustness 294

Losing Our Historical Roots in the Peace Movement 297

Moving Forward 298

Maintaining and Improving Solidarity 298

Fighting for Control over Our Work 299

Returning to Our Legacy of Resistance 301

Reinvigorating Our Theory Base 301

Promoting Social and Economic Justice, Not Charity 302

Note 302

Appendix A CASW Branches, 1927-58 303

Appendix B CASW Presidents, 1926-2001 305

References 307

Index 331

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