ISBN-10:
0863564372
ISBN-13:
9780863564376
Pub. Date:
Publisher:
The Meaning of Mecca: The Politics of Pilgrimage in Early Islam

The Meaning of Mecca: The Politics of Pilgrimage in Early Islam

by M E McMillan

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Overview

The hajj, the fifth pillar of Islam, is a religious duty to be performed once in a lifetime by all Muslims who are able. The Prophet Muhammad set out the rituals of hajj when he led what became known as the Farewell Hajj in 10 AH (632 AD). This set the seal on Muhammad's career as the founder of a religion and the leader of a political entity based on that religion.

The convergence of the Prophet with the politician infuses the hajj with political, as well as religious, significance. For the caliphs who led the Islamic community after Muhammad's death, leadership of the hajj became a position of enormous political relevance as it presented them with an unrivaled opportunity to proclaim their pious credentials and reinforce their political legitimacy. This unique study analyzes information provided by contemporary sources about the leadership of the Hajj in Islam's formative period, between the seventh and tenth centuries, and assesses the pilgrimage from a political perspective.

A unique study because it collects and analyzes information provided by contemporary sources about the leadership of the Hajj in Islam's formative period, between the seventh and tenth centuries, and uses it to assess the pilgrimage from a political perspective.

Published in advance of a major British Museum exhibition, The Hajj: Journey to the Heart of Islam, opening in London in January 2012.

M.E. McMillan earned a PhD in Islamic history at the University of St Andrews, and has worked for the UN Security Council as a translator. The author lives in Belfast, Northern Ireland.



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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780863564376
Publisher: Saqi Books
Publication date: 12/13/2011
Pages: 300
Product dimensions: 6.20(w) x 9.30(h) x 0.80(d)

About the Author

M.E. McMillan: M.E. McMillan earned a PhD in Islamic History at the University of St Andrews, and has worked for the UN Security Council as a translator.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgements 15

Introduction: The Politics of Pilgrimage 15

1 The Prophet's Precedent: The Farewell Hajj of 10/632

The Prophet and The Pilgrimage 19

The Rituals of the Hajj 21

The Meaning of Mecca for the Muslim Community 25

2 Following in the Prophet's Footsteps: The Era of the Rightly Guided Caliphs

Table 1 29

Abu Bakr: Leadership of the Hajj and the Nature of Authority in Islam 32

'Umar and 'Uthman: The Hajj as a Channel of Communication 35

'Ali b. Abi Talib: All Roads Do Not Lead to Mecca 39

The Hajj as a Platform for Rebellion 41

Conspicuous by Their Absence: Who Did Not Lead the Hajj 43

3 Mu'awiyah B. Abi Sufyan: A New Regime and a New Hajj Policy

Table 2 45

Mu'awiyah and Leadership of the Hajj 47

Political Choreography: The Hajj of the Caliph's Successor Son 51

The Ruling Family and Leadership of the Hajj 54

Leading the Hajj by Proxy: The Governorship of Medina and the Politics of Martyrdom 56

Conspicuous by Their Absence: Who Did Not Lead the Hajj 60

4 The Caliphate in Transition: The Hajj as a Barometer of Political Change

Table 3 63

Yazld and Leadership of the Hajj:

The Haram as an Ideological Battleground 65

Ibn al-Zubayr: Rebel or Ruler? 70

Alternative Uses of the Hajj: The Haram as the Centre of an Information Network 73

The Hajj of 68 AH: A Platform for Rebellion 75

5 The Return of the Umayyads and the Reintroduction of the Sufyanid Hajj Policy

Table 4 77

A Tale of Two Holy Cities: Mecca, Jerusalem and the Hajj 79

The Hajj of 72 AH: A Barometer of Political Change 81

Restoring Precedent: The Caliphs Victory Hajj of 75 AH 84

The Issue of Succession: The Hajj Seasons of 78 AH and 81 AH 86

The Governors of Medina and Leadership of the Hajj: The Sufyanid Model Revisited 89

6 A House Dividing: The Successor Sons of 'abd Al-Malik: Al-Walid and Sulayman

Table 5 95

Power and Patronage: The Caliphal Hajj of 91 AH 97

Following in His Predecessors' Footsteps: Al-Walid's Succession Policy and Leadership of the Hajj 100

Following in His Predecessors' Footsteps II: Al-Walid's Governors of Medina and Leadership of the Hajj 102

The Caliphal Pilgrimage of 97 AH: Hajj and Jihad in the Same Year 106

The Politics of Protest: Sulayman's Governors of the Holy Cities and Leadership of the Hajj 110

7 'Umar II and Yazid II: A Different Approach to the Hajj

Table 6 115

'Umar II: A Hajj Policy Based in the Hijaz 116

Yazid II: Another/Z/j// Policy Based in the Hijaz 119

'Umar II, Yazid II and Leadership of the Hajj: Some Unanswered Questions 123

8 The Last of a Line: Hisham B. Abd Al-Malik

Table 7 127

Restoring Precedent: The Caliphal Hajj of 106 AH 130

The Hajj of the Heir Apparent in 116 AH 134

The Hajj of the Would-Be Heir Apparent in 119 AH 136

Keeping it in the Family: Hisham's Governors of the Holy Cities and Leadership of the Hajj 139

All Roads Lead to Mecca: The Hajj as a Platform for Rebellion 141

9 The Third and Final Generation: Al-Walid II to Marwan II

Table 8 143

The Hajj of 115 AH: The Politics of Reprisal Revisited 14s

The Hajj of 126 AH: The Search for Umayyad Unity 149

The Ongoing Search for Umayyad Unity: The Hajj Seasons of 117 AH and 118 AH 153

The Hajj Seasons 119 AH to 131 AH: Power Slips Away 155

10 Summary: The Meaning of Mecca

Power and Patronage at the Pilgrimage 161

Governing Islam's First Cities and Leadership of the Hajj 161

The Politics of Protest: Alternative Uses of the Hajj 164

The Politics of Pilgrimage 165

Appendix A The Sources and Their Challenges 167

Appendix B Further Reading on the Hajj and the Umayyads 177

Bibliography 183

Index 191

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