Brief indications of the etymology of each word are given, with references in difficult cases to the Oxford English Dictionary (N.E.D.). Apart from their usefulness as a basis for exercises in phonology and the analysis of vocabulary, these will serve to differentiate words distinct in origin which coincide in some of their forms or spellings. The Old English or Old French forms cited are those that best illustrate the Middle English; in consequence the Old English forms frequently differ from normal West-Saxon, and the Old French forms are especially those of the French current in England (Anglo-French is rarely specified). Old Norse words have usually been cited in the normal spelling (e.g. of Zoëga's Old Icelandic Dictionary). Accordingly, long vowels in Old Norse words are marked as in bráþ-r. In Old English words stable long vowels are marked as in brad; uncertain quantity or probable shortening in Old English times is marked as in adr??dd; vowels that were lengthened in the Old English period (e.g. before ld, mb, nd) are marked as in cáld, clímban, bíndan.
About the Author
J. R. R. Tolkien (1892-1973) was an English writer, poet, philologist, and university professor who is best known as the author of the classic high-fantasy books The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings series (The Fellowship of the Ring, The Two Towers, and The Return of the King). After his death, his son Christopher Tolkien published books based on Tolkien's notes and unpublished manuscripts, including The Silmarillion.
Date of Birth:January 3, 1892
Date of Death:September 2, 1973
Place of Birth:Bloemfontein, Orange Free State (South Africa)
Place of Death:Oxford, England
Education:B.A., Exeter College, Oxford University, 1915; M.A., 1919